Academic / Business Vocabulary

abandon     v.  go away from (a person or thing or place) not intending to return; forsake; desert

abstract  adj.  existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence

academy           n.  school for special training

access            n.  ~ means of approaching or entering (a place); way in

accommodate       v.  provide lodging or room for

accompany         v.  walk or travel with (sb) as a companion or helper; escort

accumulate        v.  gradually get or gather together an increasing number or quantity of get (sth) in this way

accurate          adj.  free from error

achieve           v.  gain or reach (sth), usu by effort, skill, courage, etc

acknowledge       v.  accept the truth of admit (sth)

acquire           v.  gain (sth) by one's own ability, efforts or behaviour

adapt             v.  ~ sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth

adequate          adj. ~ satisfactory in quantity or quality; sufficient

adjacent          having a common endpoint or border  also immediately preceding or following

adjust            v.  put (sth) into the correct order or position; arrange

administrate      v. to administer

adult             adj.  grown to full size or strength

advocate          v. speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support

affect            v.  have an influence on (sb/sth); produce an effect on

aggregate         v.  ~ sb (fml ) be formed or bring sb into an assembled group or amount

aid               n.  help

albeit            conj although

allocate          v. ~ sth allot or assign sth (to sb/sth) for a special purpose

alter             v.  become different; change in character, position, size, shape, etc

alternative       adj.  available in place of sth else; other

ambiguous         adj.  having more than one possible meaning

amend             v.  correct an error in (sth); make minor improvements in; change slightly

analogy           n.  ~ partial similarity between two things that are compared

analyse           v.  separate into its parts in order to study its nature or structure

annual            adj.  happening every year

anticipate        v.  expect

apparent          adj.  clearly seen or understood; obvious

append            v. ~ sth (fml ) attach or add sth (esp in writing)

appreciate        v.  understand and enjoy (sth); value highly

approach          v.  come near or nearer to in space or time

appropriate       adj. ~ suitable; right and proper

approximate       adj. almost correct or exact but not completely so

arbitrary         adj.  based on personal opinion or impulse, not on reason

area              n.  extent or measurement of a surface

aspect            n.  particular part or feature of sth being considered

assemble          v.  come together; collect

assess            v.  ~ sth decide or fix the amount of sth

assign            v.  ~ sth to sb give sth to sb as a share of work to be done or of things to be used

assist            v.  ~ in/with sth; ~ (sb) in doing sth (fml ) help

assume            v.  accept as true before there is proof

assure            v.  tell (sb) positively or confidently

attach            v.  ~ sth fasten or join sth (to sth)

attain            v.  succeed in getting (sth); achieve

attitude          n.  ~ way of thinking or behaving

attribute         v. ~ sth to sb/sth regard sth as belonging to, caused by or produced by sb/sth

author            n.  writer of a book, play, etc

authority         n.  power to give orders and make others obey

automate          v. cause to operate by automation

available         adj.  that can be used or obtained

aware             adj.  ~ of sb/sth; ~ that... having knowledge or realization of sb/sth

behalf            n. on behalf of sb/on sb's behalf; US in behalf of sb/in sb's behalf as the representative of or spokesman for sb; in the interest of sb

benefit           n.  profit; gain; future good (used esp with the vs and preps shown)

bias              n.  opinion or feeling that strongly favours one side in an argument or one item in a group orseries; predisposition; prejudice

bond              n.  written agreement or promise that has legal force; covenant

brief             adj.  lasting only a short time; short

bulk              n.  size, quantity or volume, esp when great

capable           adj.  having ability; able; competent

capacity          n.  ability to hold or contain sth

category          n. class or group of things in a complete system of grouping

cease             v.  come or bring (sth) to an end; stop

challenge         n.  ~ (to do sth) invitation or call (to sb) to take part in a game, contest, fight etc to prove who is better, stronger, more able, etc

channel           n.  sunken bed of a river, stream or canal

chapter           n.  (usu numbered) division of a book

chart             n.  detailed map used to help navigation at sea, showing coasts, rocks, the depth of the sea, etc

chemical          adj.  of or relating to chemistry

circumstance      n.  condition or fact connected with an event or action

cite              quote; commend

civil             adj.  of or relating to the citizens of a country

clarify           v.  (cause sth to) become clear or easier to understand

classic           adj.  having a high quality that is recognized and unquestioned; of lasting value and importance

clause            n.  group of words that includes a subject1(4a) and a verb, forming a sentence or part of a sentence

code              n.  (system of) words, letters, symbols, etc that represent others, used for secret messages or for presenting or recording information briefly

coherent          adj. connected logically or consistent; easy to understand; clear

coincide          v. ~  (of events) occur at the same time or occupy the same period of time as sth else

collapse          v.  fall down or in suddenly

colleague         n. person with whom one works, esp in a profession or business

commence          v. begin (sth); start

comment           n.  ~ written or spoken remark giving an opinion on, explaining or criticizing (an event, a person, a situation, etc)

commission        n.  ~ action, task or piece of work given to sb to do

commit            v.  do (sth illegal, wrong or foolish)

commodity         n.  thing bought in a shop and put to use, esp in the home

communicate       v.  ~ sth make sth known; convey sth

community         n.  the community the people living in one place, district or country, considered as a whole

compatible        adj. ~ (of people, ideas, arguments, principles, etc) suited; that can exist together

compensate        v. ~ for sth give (sb) sth good to balance or lessen the bad effect of damage, loss, injury,etc;

compile           v.  ~ sth (for/from sth) collect (information) and arrange it in a book, list, report, etc

complement        n.  ~ thing that goes well or suitably with sth else, or makes it complete

complex           adj. made up of (usu several) closely connected parts

component         n. any of the parts of which sth is made

compound          n. thing made up of two or more separate things combined together

comprehensive     adj. that includes everything

comprise          v. have as parts or members; be made up of

compute           v. ~ sth calculate sth with a computer

conceive          v.  become pregnant

concentrate       v.  ~ (sth) (on sth/doing sth) focus (one's attention, effort, etc) exclusively and intensely on sth, not thinking about other less important things

concept           n. ~ idea underlying sth; general notion

conclude          v.  ~ (with sth) (usu fml ) come or bring (sth) to an end

concurrent        adj. ~ existing, happening or done at the same time

conduct           n.  person's behaviour

confer            v.  ~ (with sb) (on/about sth) have discussions (esp in order to exchange opinions or get advice)

confine           v.  ~ sb/sth keep (a person or an animal) in a restricted space

confirm           v.  provide evidence for the truth or correctness of (a report, an opinion, etc); establish the truth of

conflict          n.  struggle; fight

conform           v.  ~ keep to or comply with (generally accepted rules, standards, etc)

consent           v. ~ give agreement or permission

consequent        adj. ~ (fml ) following sth as a result or an effect

considerable      adj. great in amount or size

consist           v. (phr v) consist of sth be composed or made up of sth

constant          adj.  going on all the time; happening again and again

constitute        v.  (fml ) make up or form (a whole); be the components of

constrain         v. make (sb) do sth by strong (moral) persuasion or by force

construct         v.  build (sth); put or fit together; form

consult           v.  ~ sb/sth go to (a person, book, etc) for information, advice, etc

consume           v.  use (sth) up

contact           n.  ~ state of touching (used esp with the vs shown)

contemporary      adj.  ~ of the time or period being referred to; belonging to the same time

context           writings preceding and following passage quoted

contract          n. ~ (for sth/to do sth) legally binding agreement, usu in writing

contradict        v.  say sth that conflicts with by (sb), suggesting that the person is mistaken or not telling the truth

contrary          adj. opposite in nature, tendency or direction

contrast          v. ~ A and/with B compare so that differences are made clear

contribute        v.  ~ (to/towards sth) give one's share of (money, help, advice, etc) to help a joint cause

controversy       n. ~ public discussion or argument, often rather angry, about sth which many people disagreewith

convene           v.  summon to come together; arrange (a meeting, etc)

converse          v. ~ (about sth); ~ (together) (fml ) talk

convert           v.  ~ (sth) (from sth) (into/to sth) change (sth) from one form or use to another

convince          v.  ~ sb make sb feel certain; cause sb to realize

cooperate         to work or act together

coordinate        vt. to organize or integrate (diverse elements) in a harmonious operation

core              n.  centre of such fruits as the apple and pear, containing the seeds

corporate         adj.  of or shared by all the members of a group; collective

correspond        v.  ~ be in agreement; not contradict sth or each other

couple            n.  two people or things that are seen together or associated, esp a man and woman together

create            v.  cause to exist; make (sth new or original)

credit            n.  permission to delay payment for goods and services until after they have been received; system of paying in this way

criteria          n. (pl of criterion) standard by which sth is judged

crucial           adj. ~ very important; decisive

culture           n.  refined understanding and appreciation of art, literature, etc

currency          n.  money system in use in a country

cycle             n.  series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order

data              n. facts or information used in deciding or discussing sth

debate            n. formal argument or discussion of a question, eg at a public meeting or in Parliament, with two or more opposing speakers, and often ending in a vote

decade            n. period of ten years

decline           v.  say `no' to (sth); refuse (sth offered), usu politely

deduce            v. ~ sth arrive at (facts, a theory, etc) by reasoning; infer sth

define            v.  ~ sth state precisely the meaning of (eg words)

definite          adj. clear; not doubtful

demonstrate       v.  ~ sth (to sb) show sth clearly by giving proof or evidence

denote            v. be the name, sign or symbol of (sth); refer to

deny              v.  say that (sth) is not true

depress           v.  make sad and without enthusiasm

derive            v.  ~ sth from sth obtain sth from sth; get sth from sth

design            n.  ~ (for sth) drawing or outline from which sth may be made

despite           prep without being affected by

detect            v. discover or recognize that (sth) is present

deviate           v. ~ from sth stop following

device            n.  thing made or adapted for a special purpose

devote            v. ~ oneself/sth to sb/sth give to sb/sth; dedicate  ;

differentiate     v.  ~ between A and B; ~ A (from B) see or show (two things) to be different; show sth to be different (from sth else)

dimension         n.  measurement of any sort

diminish          v.  become smaller or less; decrease

discrete          adj. separate; distinct

discriminate      v.  ~ ~ A from B see or make a difference (between two things)

displace          v.  move from the usual or correct place

display           v. ~ sth  put sth on show

dispose           v. place(sb/sth) in a suitable way; arrange

distinct          adj.  easily heard, seen, felt or understood; definite

distort           v.  pull or twist out of its usual shape

distribute        v.  ~ sth separate sth into parts and give a share to each person or thing

diverse           adj. of different kinds; varied

document          n. paper, form, book, etc giving information about sth, evidence or proof of sth

domain            n.  lands owned or ruled by a nobleman, government, etc

domestic          adj.  of the home, household or family

dominate          v.  have control of or a very strong influence on (people, events, etc)

draft             n.  rough preliminary written version of sth

drama             n.  play for the theatre, radio or TV

duration          n.  time during which sth lasts or continues

dynamic           adj.  of power or forces that produce movement

economy           n.  avoidance of waste (of money, strength, time, resources, etc)

edit              v.  prepare for publication, eg in a book, newspaper, or magazine

element           n.  ~ necessary or characteristic part of sth

eliminate         v.  ~ sb/sth remove (esp sb/sth that is not wanted or needed)

emerge            v. ~  come out or up (from water, etc)

emphasis          n. force or stress given to a word or words when spoken, to make the meaning clear or to show importance

empirical         adj. based on observation or experiment, not on theory

enable            v.  make able to do sth by giving him the necessary authority or means

encounter         v.  meet or find oneself faced by (sth/sb unpleasant, dangerous, difficult, etc)

energy            n.  ability to act or work with strength and eagerness

enforce           v.  ~ sth force people to obey (a law, etc); make sth effective

enhance           v. increase make (sb/sth) look better

enormous          adj. very large; immense

ensure            v.  make sure; guarantee

entity            n.  thing with distinct and real existence

environment       n.  conditions, circumstances, etc affecting people's lives

equate            v. ~ sth consider sth as equal or equivalent (to sth else)

equip             v. ~ sb/sth (with sth) supply sb/sth (with what is needed, for a particular purpose)

equivalent        adj. ~ equal in value, amount, meaning, importance, etc

erode             v. destroy or wear (sth) away gradually

error             n.  thing done wrongly; mistake

establish         v.  set up on a firm or permanent basis

estate            n.  area of land, esp in the country, with one owner

estimate          n.  judgement or calculation of the approximate size, cost, value, etc of sth

ethic             n.  system of moral principles; rules of conduct

ethnic            adj.  of a national, racial or tribal group that has a common cultural tradition

evaluate          v. find out or form an idea of the amount or value of (sb/sth); assess

eventual          adj. happening at last as a result; ultimate

evident           adj. ~ (that...) obvious (to the eye or mind); clear

evolve            v.  (cause to) develop naturally and (usu) gradually

exceed            v. be greater or more numerous than (esp a quantity)

exclude           v.  ~ sb/sth prevent sb from entering somewhere, taking part in sth, etc; keep sb out

exhibit           n.  object or collection of objects displayed for the public, eg in a museum

expand            v.  ~ (into sth) (cause sth to) become greater in size, number or importance

expert            n. ~ person with special knowledge, skill or training in a particular field

explicit          adj.  (of a statement, etc) clearly and fully expressed

exploit           n. brave or adventurous deed or action

export            n.  exporting

expose            v.  uncover or make (sth) visible; display

external          adj.  outside; situated on the outside of sth (esp the body)

extract           v. ~ sth  take or get sth out, usu with effort or by force

facilitate        v. (of an object, a process, etc but not of a person) make (sth) easy or less difficult

factor            n.  fact, circumstance, etc that helps to produce a result

feature           n.  one of the named parts of the face (eg nose, mouth, eyes) which together form its appearance

federal           of or relating to a form of government or a country in which power is divided between one central and several regional government

fee               n.  (usu pl ) amount paid for professional advice or service, eg to private teachers, doctors, etc

file              n. metal tool with a rough surface for cutting, smoothing or shaping hard substances

final             adj.  of the end; coming last

finance           n.  management of money

finite            adj.  having bounds; limited; not infinite

flexible          adj.  that can bend easily without breaking

fluctuate         v. ~  (of a price, number, rate, etc) rise and fall; change irregularly

focus             n. =>Usage at data data.  point at which rays (of light, sound, etc) meet or from which theyappear to come

format            n.  shape, size, binding, etc of a book

formula           n. (chemistry ) set of symbols showing the elements that a substance is made of

forthcoming       adj.  about to happen or appear in the near future

foundation        n.  act of founding

founded           [ find: ] to meet with or discover by chance

framework         n.  structure giving shape and support

function          n.  special activity or purpose of a person or thing

fund              n.  sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose

fundamental       adj.  of or forming the basis or foundation of sth; essential

furthermore       adv. in addition; moreover ;

gender            n.  (in certain languages) classification of a noun or pronoun as masculine or feminine

generate          v. cause to exist or occur; produce

generation        n.  production

globe             n.  small spherical model of the earth showing the continents and usu also countries, rivers, cities, etc

goal              n.  (in football, hockey, etc) pair of posts with a crossbar, between which the ball has to be kicked, hit, etc in order to score

grade             n.  step, stage or degree of rank, quality, etc; level of classification

grant             v.  agree to give or allow (what is asked for)

guarantee         n.  ~ (against sth) promise (usu in writing) that certain conditions agreed to in a transaction will be fulfilled

guideline         a principle put forward to set standards or determine a course of actio

hence             adv.  from this time

hierarchy         n. system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest

highlight         n.  best, most interesting or most exciting part of something

hypothesis        n. idea or suggestion that is based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation

identical         adj.  the ~ the same

identify          v.  ~ sb/sth as sb/sth show, prove, etc who or what sb/sth is; recognize sb/sth (as being the specified person or thing)

ideology          n. ideas that form the basis of an economic or political theory or that are held by a particular group or person

ignorant          adj.  ~ (of sth)knowing little or nothing; lacking education or information; unaware

illustrate        v.  supply with pictures, diagrams, etc

image             n.  copy of the shape of a person or thing, esp one made in stone or wood; statue

immigrate         v. ~ enter a foreign country in order to live there permanently

impact            n.  hitting of one object against another

implement         n. tool or instrument

implicate         v. ~ sb show that sb is involved in sth, esp a crime

implicit          adj.  ~ implied, but not expressed directly; not explicit

imply             v.  suggest (sth) indirectly rather than state it directly; hint

impose            v.  ~ sth place (a penalty, tax, etc) officially on sb/sth

incentive         n. ~ thing that encourages sb to do sth; stimulus

incidence         n.  ~ of sth extent to which sth happens or has an effect

incline           v.  ~ towards sth lean or slope in the direction of sth

income            n. money received over a certain period, esp as payment for work or as interest on investments

incorporate       v.  ~ sth (in/into sth) make sth part of a whole; include

index             n. list of names or topics referred to in a book, etc, usu arranged at the end in alphabetical order

indicate          v.  ~ sth (to sb) show sth, esp by pointing

individual        adj.  single; separate

induce            v.  persuade or influence (sb) to do sth

inevitable        adj.  that cannot be avoided; that is sure to happen

infer             v. ~ sth (from sth) reach (an opinion) from facts or reasoning; conclude sth

infrastructure    n. subordinate parts, installations, etc that form the basis of a system, an organization oran enterprise (eg of an army)  ,

inherent          adj. ~ existing as a natural or permanent feature or quality of sb/sth

inhibit           v.  ~ sb prevent sb from doing sth that should be natural or easy to do

initial           adj. of or at the beginning; first

initiate          v.  put (a scheme, etc) into operation; cause (sth) to begin

injure            v. hurt (sb); harm

innovate          v. make changes; introduce new things

input             n. ~  action of putting sth in

insert            v. ~ sth put, fit, place sth into sth or between two things

insight           n. ~  (approv ) ability to see into the true nature (of sth); deep understanding

inspect           v.  examine (sth) closely

instance          n.  ~ particular occurrence of sth that happens generally or several times; example; case

institute         n. society or organization for a special (usu social, professional or educational) purpose

instruct          to direct to do something; order

integral          adj.  ~ necessary for completeness

integrate         v. ~ sth (into sth); ~ A and B/~ A with B combine sth in such a way that it becomes fully a part of sth else

integrity         n.  quality of being honest and morally upright

intelligence      n.  power of learning, understanding and reasoning; mental ability

intense           adj.  (of sensations) very great or severe; extreme

interact          v.  ~ act or have an effect on each other

intermediate      adj. ~ situated or coming between two people, things, etc in time, space, degree, etc

internal          adj.  of or on the inside

interpret         v.  explain (sth which is not easily understandable)

interval          n.  ~ time between two events

intervene         v.  (of time) come or be between

intrinsic         adj. belonging naturally; existing within, not coming from outside

invest            v.  ~ (in sth/with sb) use (money) to buy shares, property, etc, in order to earn interest or bring profit

investigate       v.  find out and examine in order to obtain the truth

invoke            v.  use (sth) as a reason for one's action

involve           v.  make necessary as a condition or result; entail

isolate           v.  ~sb/sth put or keep sb/sth entirely apart from other people or things; separate sb/sth ;

issue             n.  outgoing; outflow

item              n.  single article or unit in a list, etc

job               n. the patience of job

journal           n.  newspaper or periodical, esp one that is serious and deals with a specialized subject

justify           v.  show that (sb/sth) is right, reasonable or just

label             n.  piece of paper, cloth, metal, etc on or beside an object and describing its nature, name, owner, destination, etc

labour            n.  physicalor mental work

layer             n.  thickness of material laid over a surface or forming a horizontal division

lecture           n.  ~ (on sth) talk giving information about a subject to an audience or a class, often as part of a teaching programme

legal             adj.  of or based on the law

legislate         v. ~ make laws

levy              v.  ~ sth (on sb) collect (a payment, etc) by authority or force; impose sth

liberal           adj.  tolerant and open-minded; free from prejudice

licence           n.  official document showing that permission has been given to own, use or do sth

likewise          adv.  similarly

link              n.  one ring or loop of a chain

locate            v.  discover the exact position or place of

logic             n.  science of reasoning

maintain          v.  ~ sth cause sth to continue; keep sth in existence at the same level, standard, etc

major             adj.  important; great(er)

manipulate        v.  control or handle with skill

manual            adj. of, done with or controlled by the hands

margin            n.  blank space round the written or printed matter on a page

mature            adj.  fully grown or developed mentally or physically; having achieved one's full potential

maximise          [ maximize: ] vt. to make as high or great as possible; increase to a maximum

mechanism         n.  working parts of a machine, etc

media             n. the media means of mass communication, eg TV, radio, newspapers

mediate           v.  ~ act as a peacemaker or go-between for two or more people, groups, etc who disagree

medical           adj.  of the art of medicine; of curing disease

medium            n. (pl usu media) means by which sth is expressed or communicated

mental            adj.  of, in or to the mind

method            n.  way

migrate           v. ~ (to...)  move from one place to go to live or work in another

military          adj. of or for soldiers or an army; of or for armed forces

minimal           adj. smallest in amount or degree

minimise          [ minimize: ] to reduce to or estimate at the least possible degree or amount

minimum           n.  least or smallest amount, degree, etc possible

ministry          n.  (buildings containing a) government department

minor             adj.  smaller, less serious, less important, etc

mode              n.  ~ (fml ) way or manner in which sth is done

modify            v.  change (sth) slightly, esp to make it less extreme or to improve it

monitor           n.  device used to observe, record or test sth

motive            n. ~ that which causes sb to act in a particular way; reason

mutual            adj.  felt or done by each towards the other

negate            v.  deny or disprove the existence of (sb/sth)

network           n.  complex system of roads, etc crossingeach other

neutral           adj.  not supporting or helping either side in a dispute, contest,war, etc; impartial

nevertheless      adv, conj in spite of this; however; still

nonetheless       adv. nevertheless; however

norm              n.  standard or pattern that is typical (of a group, etc)

normal            adj.  in accordance with what is typical, usual or regular

notion            n.  ~ idea or belief; concept

notwithstandin prep (can also follow the n to which it refers ) without being affected by (sth); in spite of

nuclear           adj.  of a nucleus, esp of an atom

objective         adj.  not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; unbiased; fair

obtain            v.  ~ sth et sth; come to own or possess sth (by buying, borrowing, taking, etc)

obvious           adj. easily seen, recognized or understood; clear

occupy            v.  live in or have possession of (a house, land, etc)

occur             v.  come into being as an event or a process; happen

odd               adj.  strange; unusual; peculiar

offset            v. ~ sth (by sth/doing sth) compensate for sth; balance sth

ongoing           adj. continuing to exist or progress

option            n.  power or freedom of choosing; choice

orient            n. the Orient countries of the (Far) East (eg Japan, China)

outcome           n. effect or result (of an event, circumstances, etc)

output            n.  quantity of goods, etc produced

overall           adj. including everything; total

overlap           v.  partly cover (sth) by extending over its edge

overseas          adj. across the sea; foreign

panel             n.  separate, usu rectangular, part of the surface of a door, wall, ceiling, etc, usu raisedaboveor sunk below the surrounding area

paradigm          n.  set of all the different forms of a word

paragraph         n.  distinct section of a written or printed text, usu consisting of several sentences dealingwith a single theme and starting on a new line

parallel          adj.  (of two or more lines) having the same distance between each other at every point

parameter         n.  quantity that does not vary in a particular case but does vary in other cases

participate       v. ~ take part or become involved (in an activity)

partner           n.  person who takes part in an activity with another or others, esp one of several owners of a business

passive           adj.  not active; submissive

perceive          v. become aware of (sb/sth); notice; observe


period            n.  length or portion of time

persist           v.  ~ continue to do sth, esp in an obstinate and determined way and in spite of opposition, argument or failure

perspective       n.  art of drawing solid objects on a flat surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth and position in relation to each other

phase             n.  stage in a process of change or development

phenomenon        n.  fact or occurrence, esp in nature or society, that can be perceived by the senses

philosophy        n.  search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of the universe and of human life

physical          adj.  of or concerning material things

plus              prep with the addition of

policy            n. ~ plan of action, statement of ideals, etc proposed or adopted by a government, politicalparty, business, etc

portion           n.  part or share into which sth is divided

pose              v.  ~ (for sb) sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed

positive          adj.  with no possibility of doubt; clear and definite

potential         adj. that can or may come into existence; possible

practitioner      n.  person who practises a skill or an art

precede           v.  come or go before in time, order, rank, etc

precise           adj.  stated clearly andaccurately

predict           v. say in advance that will happen; forecast

predominant       adj.  having more power or influence than others

preliminary       adj. ~ coming before a more important action or event; preparatory

presume           v.  suppose to be true; take (sth) for granted

previous          adj.  coming before in time or order

primary           adj.  earliest in time or order of development

prime             adj.  most important; chief; fundamental

principal         adj. first in rank or importance; chief; main

principle         n.  basic general truth that underlies sth

prior             adj. coming before in time, order or importance

priority          n.  ~ (state of) being more important (in rank)

proceed           v.  ~ (to sth) go to a further or the next stage; go on

process           n.  series of actions or operations performed in order to do, make or achieve sth

professional      adj.  of or belonging to a profession

prohibit          v.  ~ sth/sb (from doing sth) forbid sth or sb from doing sth esp by laws, rules or regulations

project           n.  scheme or undertaking

promote           to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER

proportion        n.  comparative part or share of a whole; fraction

prospect          n.  (dated ) wide view of a landscape, etc

protocol          n.  system of rules governing formal occasions, eg meetings between governments, diplomats, etc; official etiquette

psychology        n.  science or study of the mind and how it functions

publication       n.  action of making a book or periodical, available to the public

publish           v.  prepare, have printed and distribute to the public (a book, periodical, etc)

purchase          n.  (action of) buying sth

pursue            v.  follow (sb/sth), esp in order to catch or kill; chase ,

qualitative       adj. of or concerned with quality

quote             v.  ~ (from sb/sth) repeat in speech or writing (words previously said or written by anotherperson)

radical           adj.  of or from the root or base; fundamental

random            adj. done, chosen, etc without method or conscious choice; haphazard

range             n.  connected line or row of mountains, hills, etc

ratio             n. relation between two amounts determined by the number of times one contains the other

rational          adj.  able to reason

react             v.  ~ behave differently or change as a result of sth; respond

recover           v.  ~ sth find again (sth stolen, lost, etc); regain possession of sth

refine            v.  remove impurities from (sth); purify

regime            n.  method or system of government

region            n.  part of a surface or bodyor space with or without definite boundaries or characteristicfeatures

register          n.  official list or record of names, items, attendances, etc

regulate          v.  control or direct by means of rules and restrictions

reinforce         v.  make stronger by adding material, etc

reject            v.  refuse to accept

relax             v.  (make sth) become less tight, stiff, etc

release           v.  ~ sb/sth (from sth) allow (a person or an animal) to go; set free or liberate sb/sth ;

relevant          adj. ~ (to sth/sb)connected with what is being discussed, what is happening,what is being done, etc

reluctance        Unwillingness.

rely              v. (pt, pp relied)  ~ on/upon sb/sth (to do sth) count or depend on sb/sth

remove            v.  ~ sth/sb (from sth) take sth/sb away from one place to another

require           v.  depend on (sb/sth) for success, fulfilment, etc; need

research          n. ~ (on sb) careful study or investigation, esp in order to discover new facts or information

reside            v.  ~ (in/at...) have one's home (in a certain place); live

resolve           v. ~ on/upon/against sth/doing sth decide firmly; determine

resource          n.  supply of raw materials, etc which bring a country, person, etc wealth

respond           v.  ~ (with sth) give a verbal or written answer

restore           v.  ~ sth (fml ) give back (sth lost, etc) to its owner

restrain          v. ~ sb/sthhold back sb/sth from movementor action; keep sb/sth under control or in check

restrict          v.  ~ sb/sth (to sth) put a limit on sb/sth

retain            v.  keep (sth) in one's possession or use

reveal            v.  ~ sth make (facts, etc) known

revenue           n.  income, esp the total annual income of the State from taxes, etc

reverse           adj.  ~ contrary or opposite to what is expected

revise            v.  re-examine (sth), esp in order to correct or improve it

revolution        n.  overthrow of a system of government, esp by force

rigid             adj.  stiff; not bending or yielding

role              n.  actor's part in a play

route             n. way taken or planned to get from one place to another

scenario          n.  written outline of a film, play, etc with details of the scenes and plot

schedule          n.  programme of work to be done or of planned events

scheme            n.  ~ plan for doing or organizing sth

scope             n.  ~ opportunity to do or achieve sth

section           n.  any of the parts into which sth may be or has been divided

sector            n.  part of a circle lying between two straight lines drawn from the centre to the circumference .

secure            adj.  ~ not feeling worry, doubt, etc

seek              v. ~ (after/for sth) look (for sth); try to find or obtain (sth)

select            v. ~ sb/sth choose sb/sth, esp as being the best or most suitable

sequence          n.  set of events, numbers, actions, etc with each following the one before continuously or in a particular order

series            n. number of things, events, etc of a similar kind, esp. placed or occurring one after another

sex               n.  condition of being male or female; gender

shift             v.  ~ (sth/sb/oneself) (from.../to...); ~ (sth/sb/oneself) (about/around) (cause sth/sb/oneself to) change or move from one position or direction to another [/]

significant       adj.  having a meaning, esp one that is immediately obvious

similar           adj. ~ resembling sb/sth but not the same; alike

simulate          v.  pretend to have or feel

site              n.  place where a building, town, etc was, is, or will be situated

so-called         adj. (used to suggest that the words used to describe sb/sth are not appropriate )

sole              n. flat sea-fish that is eaten as food

somewhat          indef adv to some degree; rather

source            n.  starting-point of a river

specific          adj.  detailed, precise and exact

specify           v. (esp fml ) state or name clearly and definitely (details, materials, etc)

sphere            n.  solid figure that is entirely round (ie with every point on the surface at an equal distance from the centre)

stable            adj. firmly established or fixed; not likely to move or change

statistic         n. item of information expressed in numbers

status            n.  person's social, legal or professional position or rank in relation to others

straightforwar adj.  honest and frank, without evasion

strategy          n.  planning and directing an operation in a war or campaign

stress            n.  mental or physical distress, difficult circumstances, etc

structure         n.  way in which sth is put together, organized, built, etc

style             n.  manner of writing or speaking, esp contrasted with what is actually written or said

submit            v.  ~ (to sb/sth) accept the control, superior strength, etc (of sb/sth); yield (to sb/sth) ;

subordinate       adj. ~ (to sb) lower in rank or position

subsequent        adj. later; following

subsidy           n. money paid, esp by a government, to help an industry, to support the arts, to keep pricesdown, etc

substitute        n. ~ person or thing that replaces, acts for or serves as sb or sth else

successor         n. ~ person or thing that comes after and takes the place of (sb/sth)

sufficient        adj. ~ enough

sum               n.  arithmetical calculation

summary           n.  brief statement of themain points of sth

supplement        n.  ~ thing added to sth else to improve or complete it

survey            v.  look carefully at all of (sth/sb), esp from a distance

survive           v.  ~ ~ (on sth) continue to live or exist

suspend           v.  ~ sth (fml ) hang sth up

sustain           v.  bear (weight) without breaking or falling

symbol            n.  ~ image, object, etc that suggests or refers to sth else; emblem

tape              n.  narrow strip of material used for tying, fastening or labelling things

target            n.  object or mark that a person tries to hit in shooting, etc; disc marked with concentric circles for this purpose in archery ; .

task              n.  piece of work that has to be done

team              n.  group of players forming one side in certain games and sports

technical         adj.  of or involving the mechanical arts and applied sciences

technique         n. method of doing or performing sth, esp in the arts or sciences

technology        n.  scientificstudy and use of mechanical arts and applied sciences, eg engineering

temporary         adj. lasting or meant to last for a limited time only; notpermanent

tense             adj.  stretched tightly; taut ;

terminate         v. come to an end or bring (sth) to an end

text              n.  main written or printed part of a book or page

theme             n.  subject of a talk, a piece of writing or a person's thoughts; topic

theory            n.  set of reasoned ideas intended to explain facts or events

thereby           adv. by that means

thesis            n. statement or theory put forward and supported by arguments

topic             n. subject of a discussion, talk, programme, written work, etc

trace             n.  mark, track, sign, etc showing what has existed or happened

tradition         n. passing of beliefs or customs from one generation to the next, esp without writing

transfer          v. ~ sth/sb (from...) (to...) move sth/sb from one place to another

transform         v. ~ sth/sb (into sth) completely change the appearance or character of sth/sb

transit           n.  process of going or being taken or transported from one place to another

transmit          To send trough or across.

transport         v. ~ sth/sb (to...)  take sth/sb from one place to another in a vehicle

trend             n.  general tendency or direction

trigger           n. lever that releases a spring, esp so as to fire a gun

ultimate          adj.  beyond which no other exists or is possible; last or final

undergo           v. experience or endure (sth unpleasant or painful)

underlie          v.  lie or exist beneath (sth)

undertake         v. (fml )  (start to) make oneself responsible for (sth)

uniform           adj. not changing in form or character; unvarying

unify             v. form (sth) into a single unit or make uniform

unique            adj.  being the only one of its type

utilise           vt. (=utilize) to put to use, especially to find a profitable or practical use for

valid             adj.  legally effective because made or done with the correct formalities

vary              v.  ~ (in sth) be different in size, volume, strength, etc

vehicle           n.  conveyance such as a car, lorry or cart used for transporting goods or passengers on land

version           n.  account of an event, etc from the point of view of one person

via               prep by way of (sth); through

violate           v.  break or be contrary to

virtual           adj. being or acting as what is described, but not accepted as such in name or officially

visible           adj. ~  that can be seen; in sight

vision            n.  power of seeing; sight

visual            adj. concerned with or used in seeing

volume            n.  book, esp one of a matching set or a series

voluntary         adj.  acting,done or given willingly

welfare           n.  good health, happiness, prosperity, etc of a person or group

whereas           conj  taking into consideration the fact that ...

whereby           rel adv  by which

widespread        extending over a wide area



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